Jennifer Ellison Brown: The digestive and absorptive system

first_img Digestion Digestion and absorption requires a large volume of blood in the capillaries in the walls of the intestine. If exercise is done too soon after eating, blood is moved from the digestive process to working muscles and the food is left undigested. It is important to keep physical activity to a minimum after eating. Generally, it is best to avoid exercising until at least three hours after a meal. By that time, the food would have entered the small intestine, where it passes quickly into the bloodstream and is stored around the body, ready to be converted to energy during physical activity. Digestion and exercise Digestion is the breakdown of food into simpler molecules (nutrients), which can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used by the cells of the body. The process begins in the mouth, where the food is chewed into smaller pieces and mixes with saliva that contains the digestive enzyme amylase. Amylase digests starch (e.g. bread, rice, pasta, yam, etc.). After chewing, the food is swallowed into the oesophagus, which leads to the stomach. Food moves through the oesophagus by a process called peristalsis, whereby muscles automatically contract, producing rhythmic waves. When food reaches the stomach, it is mixed with a number of acidic substances, collectively called gastric juices. This gastric juice kills any harmful bacteria that may have been ingested with the food. Some nutrients and water contained in the food are absorbed into the bloodstream. The enzyme pepsin starts the breakdown of protein. Food stays in the stomach for about two and a half hours, where it is churned into a liquefied state to form chyme. The chyme is released in small amounts into the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. In the duodenum, a number of enzymes produced by the gall bladder, the liver and the pancreas are mixed with the food. The gall bladder stores bile, which neutralises the acid leaving the stomach. Bile also helps to break down fats in the small intestine. The liver produces bile, which also helps with the breakdown of carbohydrates and protein. It also acts as a filter, maintaining the balance of nutrients in the blood. The pancreas produces insulin and other enzymes, which help with the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The end products of digestion (glucose, amino acids and fatty acids), along with minerals, vitamins and water are absorbed into the blood stream by hair-like projections (villi) on the inner surface. All the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine is carried to the liver first. The level of nutrients in the blood is adjusted to the best levels for the body to function. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and fat. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles and fat is stored all over the body, but particularly beneath the skin. Excess fatty acid is also converted to fat, while excess amino acid is converted to glucose and the toxic waste urea. Urea is eventually excreted by the kidney. If glucose and fatty acids are in short supply, the liver reverses the processes described above and releases glucose from the glycogen stores and fatty acids from the fat stores. The body cannot store protein. Therefore, if amino acids are in short supply, the liver cannot produce more. After the liver has adjusted the amount of nutrients to the correct level in the blood, they pass on around the body. Glucose and fatty acids are used as energy sources. Amino acids are used to make the proteins necessary for growth and the repair of tissues; e.g. muscle tissue or as a source of energy, if necessary. The remaining undigested food passes into the large intestine (colon), where water is reabsorbed and the undigested food moves to the rectum and eventually passed out the anus as faeces. The digestive and absorptive system consists of the alimentary canal (mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus), salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver and the associated blood vessels.last_img read more

Bernard’s KC aim for trophy success

first_img Home game against Ascott Confident his team has the right balance and is very hungry for silverware this season, Ludlow Bernard has warned his charges, who comfortably top Group C, that anything short of lifting the ISSA/FLOW Manning Cup, FLOW Super Cup or Walker Cup title will be unacceptable this year. Bernard, who is in his second season in charge of his Alma Mater, feels he has players who are mentally strong enough to deal with the conditions of competition this year. “The hunger is very much there in my team. They are probably seeing a light at the end of the tunnel and we are hoping that we can bend the corner and of course, get out into the light. The trophies are there for the taking, and we are one of the contenders,” he told The Gleaner. The many-time Manning Cup champions have gone over two decades without Manning Cup success, and Bernard wants his charges to believe that this year could be the year. Today, Bernard’s KC will line up against Ascott High in a home game at 3:30 p.m. looking to push their winning record to a perfect four. “I can’t really speak for the second round now. We will have to continue our progress, we are playing these games and hoping we can build a momentum with and try to provide as much exposure as possible for all of our players,” he said following his team’s 2-0 defeat of Papine High, last Friday. He wants to win every game and qualify for the Flow Super Cup and Walker Cup. “We are definitely eyeing the Super Cup, that is one of our priorities to try and top the zone and qualify for the Super Cup as well as the Walker Cup. “I guess anything short of that would not be acceptable, but I think we are on course, and we are going to try and maintain our form going forward,” stressed Bernard. The ‘Purples’ have dispatched St Mary’s College, Denham Town and Papine High so far, with Bernard expecting even more wins. “The team is a lot more balanced, and there is quite a bit of depth inside of the squad,” Bernard outlined, noting a number of national Under-17 players will help their title chase in future games.last_img read more

Vishaul career best puts Windies A in command

first_imgPALLEKELE, Sri Lanka (CMC):Vice-captain Vishaul Singh struck a career-best fifth first class century to spearhead a massive West Indies A batting effort on the second day of the second four-day ‘Test’ against Sri Lanka A here yesterday.Unbeaten on 81 overnight at the Pallekele International Cricket Stadium, the left-hander carved out a superb 161 to lift West Indies to 509 for nine declared in their first innings.Opener Rajendra Chandrika, who had retired hurt on 51 on Tuesday’s opening day, returned to make 84, while tailender Kemar Roach chipped in with 39.At the close, captain Dimuth Karunaratne was holding the hosts’ innings together with an unbeaten 66 as they reached 128 for four – still 381 runs behind heading into today’s penultimate day.Wicketkeeper Niroshan Dickwella was not out on 38 and has so far put on 91 for the fifth wicket with Karunartne, a partnership which pulled Sri Lanka A from danger at 37 for four.Seamer Roach trapped Avishka Fernando lbw for seven at 19 for one and Test batsman Lahiru Thirimanne followed for three at 32 for two when he was caught at the wicket off fast bowler Keon Joseph, who has taken two for four from four overs.Joseph removed Roshen Silva for a first-ball ‘duck’ at 36 for three and with a run added, Charith Asalanka was lbw to off-spinner Rahkeem Cornwall for one.However, first ‘Test’ century-maker, Karunaratne, produced yet another excellent innings to stave off the collapse, facing 124 deliveries and counting 12 fours, while Dickwella has struck two fours in his 65-ball knock.MORE RUNSEarlier, resuming from their overnight 331 for five, West Indies A flourished, thanks to the Guyanese pair of Vishaul and Chandrika, who put on 54 for the sixth wicket.While Vishaul faced 306 deliveries and struck 16 fours, Chandrika hit nine boundaries off 84 balls, falling with his second first class century in sight when he was lbw to leg-spinner Jeffrey Vandersay.Vishaul, who reached triple figures 40 minutes before lunch, then added a further 90 for the seventh wicket with Roach, who hit four fours and two sixes in his 80 balls at the crease.The partnership took West Indies to lunch at 410 for six and helped the visitors increase their dominance in the second session, before Roach finally departed, an hour after the resumption.Off-spinner Charith Asalanka was the best bowler, with four for 104.last_img read more

More sports in brief

first_img Mourinho charged by FA MANCHESTER, England (AP): Manchester United manager Jose Mourinho found himself in more trouble with English football authorities yesterday when he was again charged with misconduct, this time for verbally abusing a referee in a Premier League game. Five days after being charged for comments made about a referee ahead of a game, Mourinho was accused by the Football Association of using “abusive and/or insulting words towards a match official” during United’s 0-0 draw against Burnley at Old Trafford on Saturday. He could be handed a touchline ban. Joshua to fight Molina MANCHESTER, England (AP): Anthony Joshua will make the second defense of his IBF world heavyweight title in a fight against American challenger Eric Molina on Dec. 10. Joshua’s promoters announced the fight yesterday. It will take place at the Manchester Arena in northern England, a rare fight outside London for the unbeaten British boxer. It is the 34-year-old Molina’s second world title fight, after losing to compatriot Deontay Wilder for the WBC belt in June last year. Molina beat Tomasz Adamek in the 10th round of their fight for the IBF inter-continental belt in April. Joshua, whose 17 straight professional wins have all come inside the distance, won the world title by knocking out Charles Martin in the second round at London’s O2 Arena in April. He successfully defended the IBF belt with a seventh-round win over Dominic Breazeale, also in London. Joshua had hoped to fight former world champion Wladimir Klitschko in December, but the bout was postponed after the Ukrainian picked up an injury. Man City tops UCL prize money NYON, Switzerland (AP): Manchester City earned 83.8 million euros in Champions League prize money last season to top the table of UEFA payments to clubs. Although Man City lost in the semi-finals to eventual winners Real Madrid, their share of lucrative British television rights lifted them above Madrid’s 80 million euro share of the 1.345 billion euro UEFA prize fund. Juventus were third with 76.2 million euros.last_img read more

Former world champion to train J’can boxers

first_imgFormer WBC heavyweight champion American Oliver ‘The Atomic Bull’ McCall will be visiting Jamaica later this month to work with the island’s amateur boxers.McCall, who is most known for his title win against Lennox Lewis in 1994, says that Jamaica has been relatively quiet in boxing internationally. However, he says, he intends to make world champions of young local talent in the future.”I want to spend the next few months working with some of the amateur boxers there, so once they do turn pro, they will go up to another level of expectancy and win titles,” McCall told The Gleaner.He says Jamaica has to ensure it does not get left behind by other countries, especially European nations, who he says are elevating in the sport.McCall has trained with world-famous coaches such as Emanuel Steward and George Benton and he says he wants to pass on what he has learnt from them to young Jamaican fighters.”I want to pass some of this on so we can compete with all the other countries in the world and I believe that really starts at the amateur level,” he said. “As the years go by, it might be two, or even 10, but the ring generalship and the ring knowledge will be passed on, and you will see a wave flow of what I’m able to give that has been given to me by hall-of-fame trainers.”JOY FACTORMcCall will be brought to the island by I-Fight Promotions, led by his friend Chris Joy.Joy’s popularity in Jamaica has grown in recent months as he was the promoter for Team USA in last season’s Wray & Nephew Contender Series, which his fighter, DeMarcus ‘Chop Chop’ Corley, won.Joy also put together the Jamaica versus Cayman Islands Pro-Am Fight Night, which saw Jamaicans Jermaine ‘Cross Breed’ Bowen and Sakima ‘Mr Smooth’ Mullings in separate main-event bouts.Jamaica Boxing Board of Control President Stephen ‘Bomber’ Jones is welcoming McCall’s visit.”Chris Joy has very good connections with the professional side of the sport and the fact that he is bringing the likes of an Oliver McCall to work with our amateurs, in my eyes, can only be positive,” Jones says. “We definitely have the talent here so more and more bouts bode well for the activity necessary to get our athletes to that next level.”last_img read more

Williams ready for Windies chance

first_imgSt Catherine Cricket Club’s Oraine Williams believes he is getting closer to a West Indies call-up, following his 146 runs against Kingston Cricket Club on Saturday. The knock was crucial as St Catherine CC registered their third successive hold on the Jamaica Cricket Association All-Island 50 Overs title. Williams was the star of the show as the defending champions brushed aside the challenge of Kingston by nine wickets. The former West Indies Under-19 batsman, who opened his team’s inning with Shacaya Thomas (43), after Kingston posted 220 runs, smashed 15 fours and five sixes before partnering with captain Danza Hyatt to see out the inning with one wicket lost. “The season didn’t start well, but in life, it’s not how you start but how you finish. I kept working hard and kept pushing. So when the captain asked for someone from one to five to bat the 50 overs and we will win, I put up my hand and accepted the challenge and carried it home for my team,” he reasoned. Williams says confidence is never an issue with him, but making 86 in the quarter-final and 49 in the semis was a great boost heading in the decider. “I am always confident but I was just not getting the big scores (this season), but I knew time would come. I just remained patient and did the work. But getting 86 and 49 in a quarter-final and semi-final leading was a significant boost, so I was confident going into the final,” said the 24 year old, who has been a part of all three St Catherine’s title wins. STILL WAITING KEPT PUSHING However, he believes his consistent performances over the last few years warrant a chance in the West Indies set-up. “The ambition is to play for West Indies and I believe I am that much closer now. I have been performing consistently over the years and I am still waiting on my time, but I don’t think it should be long,” Williams told The Gleaner. “It’s just for the selectors to take a look and give me a chance because I have been sitting and waiting on my time, and when it comes, I plan to take it with both hands,” Williams added. “This is my highest score in a final. It’s a great feeling to get a hundred in a final … Former captain Tamar Lambert told me someone is always remembered in a final, so I tried to push hard. But it’s just hard work and dedication over the past few months.. so it’s just the hard work paying off,” continued the former Innswood High school student.last_img read more

Edwin Allen, Hydel, Holmwood shine at Jamalco

first_imgFans at last weekend’s JAAA/Jamalco Development meet saw a lively battle between Edwin Allen High and Holmwood Technical High in the 1500 metres events. The pendulum swung back and forth with Edwin Allen in charge in Class One and Class Three and Holmwood on top in Class Two. The fastest time came in Class Three, courtesy of Rushana Dwyer of Edwin Allen. Dwyer won in 4:53.34 seconds. Even though, the times were slower in the higher classes, the racing was close. Kara Grant outkicked Chrisanni May of Holmwood to clinch the Class One title in 4:59.54 with May not far off at 5:00.08. The tables were turned in Class Two as last year’s Boys and Girls Championship double winner Cemore Donald of Edwin Allen was beaten in a close finish. Holmwood’s Brittany Clarke got home in 4:56.97 edged Donald by 0.2. Class 1 Tahjay Wilson Bellefield 4:09.74 seconds Class 2 Jordan Jones MHS 4:21.38 seconds Class 3 Jahiel Stamp Mavis Bank 5:12.19 seconds The best sprint performances came from the University of Technology. First, former Garvey Maceo sprinter Tyquendo Tracey covered 200m in 21.68 seconds. Later in the meet, his new University of Technology teammate, Junelle Bromfield, who won four gold medals for St Elizabeth Technical at Boys and Girls’ Championships in 2016, put in a notable bout of speedwork. Bromfield dazzled the field in the women’s 100 metres and won her heat in 12.14 seconds. The best 400m run of the day came from tall G.C. Foster College hurdler Marzel Miller. He circled the track in 48.64 seconds. Off track, the organisers honoured retired Olympians Wellesley Clayton, Garth Case, Byron Dyce, Trevor Dyce and Dennis Dyce. Men Selected results 3000m Jade Jones Hydel 11 minutes 12.15 seconds 400m Class 3 Daniella Deer Hydel 57,87 seconds Class 2 Abigail Brooks Holm 55.85 secondscenter_img SPEEDWORK 200m Girls Class 1 Isheena Belnavis Hydel 24.55 seconds Open Roniesha McGregor Hydel 24.21 seconds Tyquendo Tracey UTECH 21.68 seconds. Boys 1500mlast_img read more

AC Milan sale delayed again

first_imgMILAN (AP): The sale of AC Milan to a group of Chinese investors was again delayed yesterday. The completion of the deal was originally scheduled for December, but Silvio Berlusconi’s holding company Fininvest and Sino-Europe Sports agreed to a three-month delay, postponing the closing to yesterday. “Conditions of the contract have not been met so the closing cannot happen today as initially planned,” Milan vice president Adriano Galliani said at a shareholders’ meeting. “Fininvest points out, however, that it is evaluating the possibility of drawing up an agreement to give up its ownership of AC Milan soon.” The new date is expected to be March 31. The deal with Sino-Europe values Milan at 740 million euros. The investors have already paid 200 million euros as a deposit. Berlusconi, who purchased Milan 31 years ago, has been negotiating for more than a year to sell the Serie A club. Giuseppe Scala, representing those with smaller stakes in the club, accused Fininvest of not being transparent and demanded more clarity from the club. Galliani responded by saying he worked for Milan, not Fininvest. “Why should I feel like I’m being taken for a fool?” Galliani asked. “There’s nothing that doesn’t work, corporate life continues as normal and calm, salaries are paid. “The deal between potential vendors and potential buyers is between Fininvest and SES. They can give answers, not the managing director of Milan. With all the goodwill, I can’t respond to questions on where we are, what will happen, what will be AC Milan’s future, because I don’t know. If Milan will or will not be sold does not depend on me.”last_img read more

Go with fit Gary Glitter

first_imgDALTON SIRJUE’s GARY GLITTER has the distance and handicaps in his favour against CRUCIAL APPEAL in this afternoon’s 1300-metre open allowance, a rematch between the two sprinters in a sharp 10-horse field. CRUCIAL APPEAL returned off a three-month lay-up, down in class, among overnight allowance horses on March 4 and accepted a gift with open arms. The seven-year-old chestnut speedster sat off the pace with Dane Nelson, behind speedy SIR BUDGET, and changed gears on GARY GLITTER inside the last half-furlong to win going away by two-and-a-half lengths. GARY GLITTER was in CRUCIAL APPEAL’s backyard that afternoon and was forced to keep pace with his faster rival while chasing SIR BUDGET in splits of 22.3, 33.0 and 44.3 after being slowly into stride, leaving him with no final kick. However, the table has turned somewhat with the rematch now being on the round course, going a furlong-and-a-half longer and four-year-old GARY GLITTER seven pounds lighter after sharing topweight 57.0 kilos with CRUCIAL APPEAL when they last met.3 Though CRUCIAL APPEAL is still a formidable foe on the round, GARY GLITTER should get some help from TALENTED TONY K, who only knows to run from in front and should ensure an honest pace to, at least, the home turn. One of the most improved horses in training since the back end of last season, GARY GLITTER returned after his loss to CRUCIAL APPEAL with a scintillating race in the grade one Lady Geeta Trophy two weeks ago. Carrying 50.5 kilos and partnered by sparingly used Chalrick Budhai, GARY GLITTER zipped to the lead in the 1100-metre race with CAMPESINO and SEEKING MY DREAM in chase. Ripping splits of 22.3, 33.3 and 44.3, GARY GLITTER turned for home a half-length on top and battled CAMPESINO, who was only four pounds heavier, for the entire stretch run, 57.1 for five furlongs, and a final time of 1:11.2. GARY GLITTER went down by a length and a half to CAMPESINO, last year’s Caribbean Sprint champion, not to mention that Horse of the Year SEEKING MY DREAM was outsped and finished a length behind him, albeit with 57.0 kilos. That performance signals danger for CRUCIAL APPEAL, who, at his best, could be tough to beat up to six furlongs. However, with TALENTED TONY K in the race, he will be under pressure to stave off GARY GLITTER, partnered by regular rider Rayan Wilson replacing Budhai.last_img read more

Nadal travels long road to win 16th Slam title at US Open

first_imgOSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ‘a duplicitous move’ – Lacson READ: Nadal wins US Open for 16th major titleThe triumph moved Nadal three shy of Roger Federer’s all-time record of 19 Slam singles titles.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie ThompsonSPORTSMayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’SPORTSFederer blasts lack of communication on Australian Open smogThe US Open was the final Slam at which Toni, Nadal’s long-time coach and inspiration, will join him, instead of taking a role directing Nadal’s youth academy.In his victory speech, Nadal reflected on what Toni has meant to his life in building the grit to overcome numerous knee injuries. A costly, catty dispute finally settled MOST READ But Nadal roared into the Australian Open final, losing to Federer, then captured his record 10th French Open crown in June, setting the stage for his title run in the Flushing Meadows fortnight.Only Nadal, Pete Sampras and Ken Rosewall have managed the feat of winning Grand Slam titles in their teens, 20s and 30s.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson “It’s not one lesson. Diary is in the head from 3 years old,” Nadal said.“Probably without him I’ll never be playing tennis. I’m thankful I had somebody like him pushing me all the time.“Because he gave me motivation I could get through all the problems I had in my career. I can only thank him for making me stronger.”When Nadal reclaimed the world number one ranking last month, it was the first since in more than three years he had topped the list.And when Federer lost in the US Open quarter-finals to Juan Martin del Potro, Nadal was ensured of keeping the top spot.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. End of his agony? SC rules in favor of Espinosa, orders promoter heirs to pay boxing legend Spain’s Rafael Nadal poses with his winning trophy after defeating South Africa’s Kevin Anderson during their 2017 US Open Men’s Singles final match at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in New York on September 10, 2017. Nadal raced to a third US Open title and 16th Grand Slam crown on Sunday with a 6-3, 6-3, 6-4 rout of South African giant Kevin Anderson. AFP PHOTO / Jewel SAMADNEW YORK — Rafael Nadal reflected on his roots as a child prodigy from the island of Mallorca and on the influence of his uncle Toni on Sunday after winning the US Open title.The 31-year-old Spaniard defeated South Africa’s Kevin Anderson 6-3, 6-3, 6-4 for his third US Open title and his 16th career Grand Slam crown after having taken a 10th French Open trophy in June at Roland Garros.ADVERTISEMENT Winning startcenter_img Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Learning about the ‘Ring of Fire’ End of his agony? SC rules in favor of Espinosa, orders promoter heirs to pay boxing legend It has been a long journey for Nadal to his latest Grand Slam glory.Nadal won an under-12 regional crown at age eight and by 12 had captured Spanish and European age-group junior titles.By 15, he had turned professional and was facing such foes on the global circuit as Anderson.At 17, Nadal won his first match against Federer.At 19, he won the 2005 French Open in his debut, the first of nine Grand Slam titles in 10 years he would claim on the red clay of Roland Garros, cementing a legacy as the greatest player ever seen on the surface.It was early in his career when Nadal began his habit of biting the championship trophies he wins.Nadal added Wimbledon crowns in 2008 and 2010, an Australian Open title in 2009 and completed the career Grand Slam in 2010 by defeating Novak Djokovic in the US Open final, becoming the youngest in the Open era (since 1967) to complete the four-event career sweep.And only Nadal and Andre Agassi can say they have a career Grand Slam and an Olympic men’s singles gold medal, Nadal having claimed his in 2008 at Beijing.Nadal, the sixth left-hander to win a US Open title, added another crown at Arthur Ashe Stadium in 2013, again downing Djokovic in the final.Knee injuries took a toll throughout his career, costing him nine Slam appearances, and after he failed to even reach a Slam semi-final in 2015 and 2016 some figured his greatest moments were behind him. Break new ground Nadal wins US Open for 16th major title Mayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’ LATEST STORIES View commentslast_img read more