Jennifer Ellison Brown: The digestive and absorptive system

first_img Digestion Digestion and absorption requires a large volume of blood in the capillaries in the walls of the intestine. If exercise is done too soon after eating, blood is moved from the digestive process to working muscles and the food is left undigested. It is important to keep physical activity to a minimum after eating. Generally, it is best to avoid exercising until at least three hours after a meal. By that time, the food would have entered the small intestine, where it passes quickly into the bloodstream and is stored around the body, ready to be converted to energy during physical activity. Digestion and exercise Digestion is the breakdown of food into simpler molecules (nutrients), which can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used by the cells of the body. The process begins in the mouth, where the food is chewed into smaller pieces and mixes with saliva that contains the digestive enzyme amylase. Amylase digests starch (e.g. bread, rice, pasta, yam, etc.). After chewing, the food is swallowed into the oesophagus, which leads to the stomach. Food moves through the oesophagus by a process called peristalsis, whereby muscles automatically contract, producing rhythmic waves. When food reaches the stomach, it is mixed with a number of acidic substances, collectively called gastric juices. This gastric juice kills any harmful bacteria that may have been ingested with the food. Some nutrients and water contained in the food are absorbed into the bloodstream. The enzyme pepsin starts the breakdown of protein. Food stays in the stomach for about two and a half hours, where it is churned into a liquefied state to form chyme. The chyme is released in small amounts into the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum. In the duodenum, a number of enzymes produced by the gall bladder, the liver and the pancreas are mixed with the food. The gall bladder stores bile, which neutralises the acid leaving the stomach. Bile also helps to break down fats in the small intestine. The liver produces bile, which also helps with the breakdown of carbohydrates and protein. It also acts as a filter, maintaining the balance of nutrients in the blood. The pancreas produces insulin and other enzymes, which help with the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The end products of digestion (glucose, amino acids and fatty acids), along with minerals, vitamins and water are absorbed into the blood stream by hair-like projections (villi) on the inner surface. All the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine is carried to the liver first. The level of nutrients in the blood is adjusted to the best levels for the body to function. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and fat. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles and fat is stored all over the body, but particularly beneath the skin. Excess fatty acid is also converted to fat, while excess amino acid is converted to glucose and the toxic waste urea. Urea is eventually excreted by the kidney. If glucose and fatty acids are in short supply, the liver reverses the processes described above and releases glucose from the glycogen stores and fatty acids from the fat stores. The body cannot store protein. Therefore, if amino acids are in short supply, the liver cannot produce more. After the liver has adjusted the amount of nutrients to the correct level in the blood, they pass on around the body. Glucose and fatty acids are used as energy sources. Amino acids are used to make the proteins necessary for growth and the repair of tissues; e.g. muscle tissue or as a source of energy, if necessary. The remaining undigested food passes into the large intestine (colon), where water is reabsorbed and the undigested food moves to the rectum and eventually passed out the anus as faeces. The digestive and absorptive system consists of the alimentary canal (mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus), salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver and the associated blood vessels.last_img read more

Delta tests biometric bag drops

first_imgDelta Air Lines is testing a facial-recognition self-serve luggage drop this summer at the Minneapolis/St. Paul (MSP) hub it acquired when it merged with Northwest Airlines a few years back.In what Delta calls a “first for U.S. carriers”,  the system allows passengers to check their own belly bags, the ones that go in the baggage hold.The self-serve set-up is designed to match passengers to their passport photos via facial recognition techniques.The initiative is part of Delta’s overall philosophy of streamlining as much of the check-in and luggage process as possible.“We expect this [$US600,000 at MSP] investment and new process to save customers time,” says Gareth Joyce the airline’s senior vice president for airport customer service and cargo. Joyce says it frees up customer service agents so they can better help passengers.Delta is looking for passenger feedback just now as the Minneapolis/St. Paul trial continues. The airline asserts studies of self-serve bag drops argue they have the potential to process twice as many passengers per hour as current arrangements.Baggage, of course, is much on the minds of passengers and airlines alike as the United States Department of Homeland Security considers extending the in-cabin laptop computer ban from a handful of Middle East countries to European destinations.last_img read more

Springboks slip up Down Under

first_img7 September 2009The Springboks’ bid to wrap up their third Tri-Nations title came up short in Brisbane on Saturday when a fired-up Wallaby team beat the world champions 21-6.The hosts managed to play more of the game in South Africa’s half and showed some dominance at scrum time, although their efforts were aided by referee Wayne Barnes, who had the Boks scratching their heads as he blew up both props, Beast Mtawarira and John Smit.Make no mistake, the Australians deserved to win as they managed to apply pressure throughout and were ultimately rewarded with the test’s only two tries. But Barnes’ lack of policing at ruck time was well exploited by the Wallabies. They managed to disrupt South African ball with tactics that many other referees would have blown up.‘No excuses’However, a grim looking Springbok captain John Smit said after the contest: “There are no excuses. Excuses are for losers, so we have no excuses.“We’ll have to do the job against the All Blacks in Hamilton next week. We’ve got one more chance, one game, and we have to make the most of our opportunity.”While South Africa enjoyed the better of the lineouts, Smit suggested that the Boks expected more of themselves at the set piece: “We won all our lineout ball,” he said, “but by our standards we need to be winning at least half of theirs.”Wallaby skipper George Smith, after four Tri-Nations losses in succession, was thrilled to be on the winning side again. “I’m far happier with our effort,” he said.‘Fantastic’“We put a lot of work in, not only this week but throughout the Tri-Nations, and to get the reward now is fantastic.”Smith continued: “Well done to the Springboks for resisting us so well for the majority of the match, but in the end we made our possession and territory count. There was a collective understanding for us that we had to repay the Australian public for their loyalty.”Reflecting back on the match and where his team had excelled, Smith said: “I was very impressed with the way we scrummed and the way we handled the lineouts. There’s a few things we need to work on, but I’m just delighted with the outcome.”While Smith felt he knew where the Wallabies had got it right, SA captain Smit couldn’t quite put his finger on where it went wrong for the Springboks. “It’s hard to pinpoint where it went wrong,” he said. “We had our moments and just couldn’t put it together.”‘The new grey area of rugby’Bok coach Peter de Villiers was clearly unimpressed by referee Barnes’ decisions at scrum time. He called the scrums “the new grey area of rugby”, adding: “You do not know which way it is going to go, and sometimes it is more guesswork.”Early on in the contest, Jacques Fourie made a sharp break, but South Africa’s progress was stopped inside the Wallabies’ 22-metre area when they turned over possession. It was the first of what would prove to be a good number of breaks by Fourie and his centre partner Jean de Villiers.Australia took the lead after five minutes when Bakkies Botha was blown up for being offsides. Matt Giteau stuck over the penalty.Brilliant tackleThe Wallabies looked odds-on to score after 16 minutes when winger Lachie Turner received the ball in space on the right hand flank. He raced for the corner and dived for the line. However, Bryan Habana was flying across from the left in cover defence and hit Turner in mid-air and knocked him out of play with a brilliant tackle.Just two minutes later Habana was back at it again, this time stopping Giteau from scoring after the flyhalf had broken through the South African defence before failing to beat the winger in a one-on-one situation.After South Africa forced their way deep into Australian territory, a clearance from the Wallabies found Habana. He tried a long distance dropped goal, but he hit the ball badly and the kick was way off target.De Villiers then made a sharp break through the Australian backline. He fed Fourie, who cut inside and was then brought down only five metres from the tryline. The ball control at the ruck wasn’t good, however, and the ball went loose. Fourie du Preez charged down an attempted clearance before the Australians were finally able to clear their lines.Lead doubledAfter 25 minutes Australia doubled their lead to 6-0 when Heinrich Brussouw was penalised for playing the ball with his foot while lying on the ground at a ruck. Giteau slotted the easy kick.The Springboks responded by surging onto the attack and after a couple of minutes of pressure and retained possession, Morne Steyn struck a drop goal to get South Africa onto the scoreboard.Not to be outdone, Giteau snapped over a drop goal of his own six minutes later, to put Australia 9-3 ahead.Four minutes from the break, Steyn became the fastest South African to 100 test points when he kicked a penalty after replacement hooker Stephen Moore was blown up for playing the ball on the ground. His achievement is all the more remarkable when one considers that in his eight tests, he has come on as a substitute three times.Just before the break, the Springboks launched an attack that took them deep into the Australian 22. From a ruck, Du Preez fed Brussouw and he dived over the tryline to score. Referee Barnes, however, ruled the scrumhalf’s pass forward and the Boks were denied points.Second halfSouth Africa started the second half well and a monster tackle by captain Smit on Moore forced a turnover. The Boks made ground into the Australian 22 but, as happened often during the game, they turned over possession while in a good attacking position.Steyn attempted a second drop goal four minutes into the second period, but he didn’t strike the ball cleanly and it passed just to the left of the posts.A sweeping Australian attack saw Rocky Elsom make good ground before Bismarck du Plessis was pinged, rather questionably, at a ruck only 10 metres from the South African tryline. Wallaby scrumhalf Will Genia took a quick tap and dived over the line. His opposite number, Fourie du Preez, however, ripped the ball loose as Genia went over to prevent an Australian score.Counter-attackAustralia continued to do most of the pressing, forcing the Springboks to play from deep inside their own half. The pressure nearly paid off just after the hour mark when the Wallabies launched a counter-attack, using the width of the field.A grubber into the left hand corner of the South African 22 was fielded by Adi Jacobs, on for an injured Bryan Habana, just before a number of chasing Australian backline players. Caught right up against the sideline, only five metres from the tryline, Jacobs flung a pass inside over his shoulder. Giteau, however, snatched the pass out of the air and dived for the corner.Fourie reacted quickly and hit the flyhalf with a strong tackle. The television match official was called on to rule on whether or not Giteau had scored and replays showed that Fourie had forced him over the sideline before the ball had been grounded.TryOnly two minutes later, the Wallabies scored the opening try of the match. A well-executed backline move freed up Adam Ashley-Cooper and a nicely judged pass from Berrick Barnes put Ashley-Cooper through a gap. Substitute Schalk Burger was too late on the cover defence and the centre ran through unopposed to score.Giteau added the extras to put Australia 16-6 ahead.The Wallabies continued to keep the Springboks pinned in their own half, which led to the Boks trying to play from very deep.With four minutes remaining, scrumhalf Du Preez attempted to launch a counter-attack, but when he was tackled by Elsom the ball went loose. There was a suggestion that the big flanker might have knocked on, but referee Barnes waved play on.Victorys securedWallaby fullback James O’Conner scooped up the loose ball and found himself in the clear. He raced through to score the Wallabies’ second try and secure the victory.Giteau missed the conversion, but not long after that the final whistle sounded and the Springboks were left without a point from the match.This coming weekend, in Hamilton, John Smit and company can wrap up the Tri-Nations title if they, at the very least, hold New Zealand without a bonus point. The Springboks, however, have bigger ambitions than that, and they want to capture the Tri-Nations silverware with a victory.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo materiallast_img read more

5 Years Since its First Tweet, Twitter Shows That 3 is Better Than 1

first_imgTwitter’s engineers work a lot. We now know that. We also now know that there are 200 of them who have been working since last June to make sure of one thing – that three data centers are better than one.Today is Twitter’s five year anniversary, a fitting day to get a glimpse for how a new, upgraded infrastructure will give some guarantee that Twitter will be around for five more years and hopefully a lot longer than that.In a revealing blog post yesterday by Twitter engineer Michael Abbott, we learn a lot has changed since last June when Twitter went down for ten hours. Have a breakdown like that and it raises questions about the future of any organization. Twitter recognizes that. The new infrastructure is Twitter’s core team telling us and trying to convince us that the service is built for long-term scalability with uptime a sure thing and not a question mark.Twitter is HiringFirst off, it’s only a last mention in the post but Twitter is hiring, looking for more to join its ranks. Abbott:P.S. Twitter is hiring across engineering and operations. If you want to develop novel systems that scale on the order of billions, join the flock.That’s an important point. It shows that Twitter will continue to invest people into its infrastructure. It distinguishes Twitter as a world-class technology company that is building an intellectual capacity as much as anything else.It also backs up what Abbott says are the long-term plans that Twitter made and began putting into place last September. A plan that Abbott writes will guarantee three things:Keep pace with capacity needs.Give the user and developer community better reliability.Allow for new product offerings. alex williams Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting The infrastructure sits at the core of the strategy. To start, the engineers replicated Twitter’s core systems to a second data center, where it moved, among other things, Jack Dorsey’s first tweet from @jack to the latest from @honeybadger. The second data center served as a staging laboratory for Twitter’s replication and migration strategies. Simultaneously, Twitter prepped its third larger data center as its final nesting ground. And who is @honeybadger you may ask? Honeybadger is a Twitter creation that stopped by a Twitter company meeting last week. Honeybadger is hilarious. We’re not sure what @honeybadger has to do with Twitter’s new data centers except for the entertainment quotient.But the infrastructure investment is a confident step for Twitter, showing that it’s here for the long-run with a level of service users and developers expect from a world-class technology company. Tags:#cloud#Data Centers center_img Related Posts Serverless Backups: Viable Data Protection for … How Intelligent Data Addresses the Chasm in Cloud Cloud Hosting for WordPress: Why Everyone is Mo…last_img read more

Are You Really Wasting Your Time?

first_img Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now Is what you are doing right now aligned with your mission and your purpose? Is it something that moves you closer to the ultimate outcomes you need to achieve? Or, is it something less than that?Is what you are doing important? Is it something that matters? Is it the proactive work that moves the needle on your overall results? If what you are doing isn’t going to make a difference were you not doing it, is it the best use of your time?The goals that you have written down require that certain actions be taken, in most cases, with a discipline that ensures they are achieved. Is what you are doing something that is so closely tied to those goals that anyone watching you right now would immediately understand what you are doing, why you are doing it, and what your long-term goal is? Or would they be confused by the incongruity of your written goals and your current actions?When you complete what you are doing right now, are you going to be proud of having done so? Will you point to what you are doing right now as an outcome that was worthy of your time and effort, assured that it made some contribution to the project or outcomes that are most important in your world?Should someone else really be doing what you are doing now? Does the task or the outcome belong to another person who is really charged with this responsibility? Would someone else create a far better outcome than you when they to do what you are doing now?Is what you are doing trivial or meaningless? Is it a distraction from what you should be doing? If you weren’t doing it right now, would you have time to do more important and more meaningful work? Is it stealing your time from more difficult, but more important work?In the future, will you wish that you hadn’t spent the time doing what you are doing right now because some other outcome could have been obtained?If you are grateful for the time you have, you will recognize how short that time is, and you will use it to do what’s important.last_img read more

Woman alleges she was driven around atop police vehicle

first_imgA 35-year-old woman alleged on Wednesday that she was made to sit on the roof of a police vehicle and driven around Shehjaza village in the Majitha Assembly constituency of Amritsar.Identified as Jaswinder Kaur, the Amritsar-based woman alleged that she sustained injuries when she fell from the top at a sharp turn near Chawinda Devi village. She claimed that there was CCTV footage of the incident.Police deny charge However, the police denied the allegation, saying an investigation was under way.The woman told reporters that a team of the Bureau of Investigation of the Punjab police had visited her house to arrest his father-in-law in a criminal case, but on not finding him, they allegedly made her sit on the roof of the police vehicle and drove around the village.SP Amritsar (Rural), Parmpal Singh said the raid was conducted by a BOI team and no district police men were involved.“I would be in a position to comment on the allegations of the woman after the matter is thoroughly investigated. The raiding team has also approached us and lodged a complaint against the woman for attacking the police,” he said.last_img read more

Odisha to strictly enforce ban on single-use plastic

first_imgAfter it faced strong opposition over implementation of the amended traffic rules a few weeks ago, the administration is taking no chances before strictly enforcing the ban on single-use plastic in Odisha.The administration has launched an awareness drive in all the urban areas, including Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Puri and Berhampur, in a big way to make people aware of the threats plastic bags, polythene and single-use plastic pose to the environment.Though raids are being conducted in different areas, a period of one month has been given to traders in Bhubaneswar to make necessary arrangements to cope with the ban on single-use plastic. Cases will be registered against repeat offenders, an official said.Although the decision to ban single-use plastic was announced by Chief Minister in July last year, it came into effect in all urban areas of the State on the occasion of 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on Wednesday.The awareness drive was launched in a big away on Gandhi Jayanti day when pledge was administered to students and their parents in various government schools and Anganwadi centres to shun single-use plastic. Noted sand artist Sudarsan Pattnaik had created a sculpture on the Puri beach recently with the slogan “say no to single-use plastic” to create awareness among the people.After banning single-use plastic in urban areas, the State government has planned to enforce it in the entire State in phases over the next two years.While the Housing and Urban Development Department will enforce the ban in the municipal corporations and urban local bodies, the Panchayati Raj Department will enforce it in rural areas of the State.last_img read more

Whoops! Wardrobe malfunction mars Olympic debut for ice dancers

first_imgMOST READ View comments AP PhotoGANGNEUNG, South Korea (AP) _ Five seconds into your Olympic debut, you suffer a wardrobe malfunction. What do you do? Keep your shoulders back and keep smiling.That’s exactly what happened to South Korean ice dancers Yura Min and Alexander Gamelin during their performance in Sunday’s team event. A hook on the back of Min’s red dress slid loose, threatening to reveal rather more than it already did.ADVERTISEMENT Hulk Hogan wants to make a wrestling comeback Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises LATEST STORIES Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC “I know that if this comes undone, then the whole thing is going to come undone. So I had that panic,” she said. “That wouldn’t be the most ideal Olympic experience, obviously. The whole time in the back of my head I was just thinking: ‘Keep your back straight because it might come down.”Things got worse during the twizzles _ a synchronized side-by-side spin _ when Min felt the dress slipping off her shoulder and down her arm. She had to react fast to stop her Olympic debut being remembered alongside Janet Jackson’s halftime performance at the Super Bowl in 2004.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“It started to come down so I had to stop my twizzle and pull it back up,” she said. Gamelin added: “We were skating well _ you just had to keep everything, well, intact.”Gamelin is from Boston, while Min was born in California to Korean parents. They might not have grown up in the Olympic host nation, but it didn’t stop the crowd from taking them to heart. Min’s dress issues hurt their points total as they finished ninth, but they’re optimistic for the ice dance competition starting Feb. 19. AFP official booed out of forumcenter_img John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers Read Next “The second we stepped onto the ice, the fans started to scream and I think we really fed off that energy,” Min said. “Even with my costume coming undone, the fans helped us, picked us up.”Gamelin talks with Min in Korean and is “at least proficient” _ which was handy during his citizenship interview last year.To march as an American-born athlete alongside North Koreans in the opening ceremony was unforgettable, he said.“That was crazy. The unified team was a really historic event,” he said. “I’m loving this whole theme of peace.”ADVERTISEMENT 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon Citylast_img read more

Adidas Creators Contest Day 24


Readers Picks of the Week

first_imgHanjin Marine Arrives at NWSA TerminalThe Hanjin Marine is the first Hanjin ship to call at one of the Northwest Seaport Alliance’s (NWSA) terminals, after the South Korean shipping company filed for receivership in late August… Read More Worker Dies after Falling from Tanker Nord GardeniaA worker died after he fell into the water while transferring from a service vessel to the chemical tanker Nord Gardenia, the vessel’s operator Dampskibsselskabet NORDEN A/S confirmed… Read More Moody’s: Maersk Ratings on Review for DowngradeDenmark-based shipping and oil company A.P. Møller-Mærsk’s Baa1 issuer rating, Baa1 senior unsecured rating and the (P)Baa1 medium-term note (MTN) program rating were placed on review for downgrade… Read More ITF Criticizes US’ Treatment of Hanjin CrewThe US authorities have been criticized by the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) due to the refusal of shore leave to seafarers on board Hanjin ships in the USA as a denial of human rights… Read More World Maritime News Staff Drewry: Hanjin’s Misfortune Leaves Gap at THE AllianceFollowing the bankruptcy of South Korea’s container carrier Hanjin Shipping, the proposed carrier grouping THE Alliance is left at a size disadvantage to both its future rivals… Read More last_img read more